26. syyskuuta 2022


The Lichens
Page 370 to 372 of Chapter 18, Botany for Degree Students - Year I, BP Pandey

A lichen is a plant consisting of two separate plants – a fungus and an alga, so closely associated with each other as to appear a single plant. The algal cells of the association are always enveloped by the fungus. The combined growth of both parterns results in a constant definite form and internal structure of the lichen. This group has about 400 genera and 15 000 species and is treated separately instead of its connection with fungi or algae. The science of lichens is termed lichenology and one who studies this science is known as lichenologist.

The fungal component in four genera of lichens is a member of Basidiomycetes and in rest it is an Ascomycetous member as such the lichens are called Basidiolichens and Ascolichens. Basidiolichens have only four genera, all are restricted to tropical regions, while the Ascolichens are restricted to temperate regions. The algal components may belong to Myxophyceae (blue green algae) or Chlorophyceae (green algae). They may be filamentous or non-filamentous. Basidiolichens always possess a member of Myxophyceae. Some lichens have been observed, where fungi are associated with autotrophic bacteria. Each lichen is always formed of the same fungal and algal components and has constant internal structure and habit.

Three types of lichens: crustose, foliose, fruticose
1. Crustose
These lichens have flattened thalli, closely adherent to substratum. Thallus of majority of such lichens has more or less leathery texture and it internally differentiated with the algal component always restricted to a definite portion of the thallus. Some lichens have gelatinous thallus, in which alga and fungus are uniformly distributed throughout a gelatinous matrix. Lichens vary in form, colours and thickness. Thallus of these lichens may vary remain partly of fully submerged in the substratum on which they grow. In the case where body is fully embedded, only the fruiting body (ascocarps) of the fungus appear on the surface of the substrate.

2. Foliose
These lichens possess leave-like thalli with lobed or irregularly folded margins. Some parts of the thallus are more or less firmly attached to the substratum by means of hyphal outgrowths, rhizines from the lower surface. Rhizines may consist of separate single branched or unbranched hyphae, or of several parallel hyphae closely adhered to each other to form strands. A foliose lichen like Gyrophora may be attached to the substratum by a single rhizine growing from the centre of the thallus or a lichen may be attached by several rhizine.

3. Fruticose
These lichens have much branched, cylindrical, ribbon-like, flattened or sometimes filamentous thalli. They are much branched, and appear shrubby, and so the name fruticose (frutex = shrub) is given to them. They may be erect (Cladonia) or pendant (Usnea). Their thalli are attached to the substratum by the basal portion only which is composed of strands of densely packed hyphae.

The lichens are variously coloured commonly bluish-green or greyish-green. Many lichens are yellow, orange, reddish, brownish or black due to the presence of additional pigments.

Supplementary: Australian Lichen© 2012 Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian National Herbarium, Canberra.

  • Fruticose lichens are erect or pendulous and markedly three-dimensional.
  • Crustose lichens are markedly two dimensional and firmly attached to the substrate. A crustose lichen looks very much like a thin crust on the substrate.
  • Foliose lichens could be thought of as halfway between crustose and fruticose. Though obviously three dimensional they grow in a more-or-less sheet-like form, but often with a lobed appearance. They are not attached by their entire lower surfaces to their substrates. Indeed, some foliose lichens are just centrally attached click to view to their substrates with the rest loose, so making it possible to see both the lower and upper surfaces very easily.
Lähetetty 26. syyskuuta 2022 08:39 käyttäjältä lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 kommenttia | Jätä kommentti

27. kesäkuuta 2022

Cell biology terminology: Diploid vs Haploid (for animals)

A cell that all chromosomes it contains are homologous chromosomes.

Cells in the germ line, which go on to produce gametes, or egg and sperm cells are haploid, which means they contain a single set of chromosomes.

The total number of chromosomes in diploid cells is described as 2n, which is twice the number of chromosomes in a haploid cell.

Genetic variation is important
Haploid cells with chromosomes genetically different from each other can amplify the gene pool, and facilitate natural selections to biological fitness and survival of that species.

Number of possible unique haploid cells in human
2 Exp(22) = 4,194,304 ~ 4M
2 Exp(23) = 8,388,608 ~ 8M

  • ~ 4M unique haploid cells with X-sex-chromosome & 4M unique haploid cells with Y-sex-chromosome for male; whereas
  • ~ 4M unique haploid cells for each female-sex-chromosome (4M + 4M) for female

The actual number of possible unique haploid cells maybe subject to certain constraints, such as evolution, social norms - preference or priority is always given to chromosomes inherited from father or mother, etc.

Lähetetty 27. kesäkuuta 2022 05:20 käyttäjältä lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 kommenttia | Jätä kommentti

26. kesäkuuta 2022

Nerium oleander

Stem to 6 m tall. Leaves very narrowly elliptic, 5-21 X 1-3.5 cm, leathery, base cuneate or decurrent on petiole, apex acuminate or acute. Leaves are opposite or in whorled.
Flowers showy, fragrant. Sepals narrowly triangular to narrowly ovate, 3-10 mm. Corolla purplish red, pink, white, salmon, or yellow, tube 1.2-2.2 cm; lobes 1.3-3 cm, single or double. Follicles cylindric, 12-23 cm. Seeds oblong, coma 0.9-1.2 cm. Fl. spring-autumn. 2n = 22.

Sun to partial shade, withstands dry conditions. Well adapted to coastal areas. It is commonly used in highway median strip plantings in California and Texas. The species is currently wide spread and it is difficult to determine a precise region of origin. It is considered native through the Mediterranean region, to the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East, to India and central China.

Oleander has historically been considered a poisonous plant (in particular, to herbivorous animals). ALL PARTS OF THIS PLANT ARE HIGHLY TOXIC AND MAY BE FATAL. It contains cardiac glycosides, which are known to be toxic when ingested. These and other poisons are found in all parts of the plant, whether dried or green. Ingestion of oleander plant parts can lead to serious illness and possibly death.

Poisoning Events
Cases of oleander poisonings due to accidental exposure, intentional ingestion and medicinal use have been reported worldwide. In Japan, a 49-year-old female drank water extract of oleander for suicide. Toxic symptoms appeared 30 minutes after ingestion. She died 1 day after admission (to the hospital). In the United States, a 42-year-old female burnt oleander for the disposal of prunings and inhaled the smoke periodically for 2 hours. She had toxic symptoms for 2 days, and recovered uneventfully after hospital treatment.


  1. College of Agricultural Sciences - Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University
  2. Chinese Plant Name of Nerium oleander
  3. The North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox - NC State University
  4. Toxicology of Nerium oleander, Hospital Authority
Lähetetty 26. kesäkuuta 2022 01:20 käyttäjältä lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 kommenttia | Jätä kommentti

11. kesäkuuta 2022

Soil vs Land

I summarize the views from Ruel Lino Cruz [see Note], Sumana Ray and Naresh Chaudhari, on the basic difference between: soil and land.

  • Land is the solid part of Earth above tide level - including volcanoes & artificial ponds, where the liquid part (below sea level) we called it Oceans, Seas, Lakes, etc.
  • Soil is the "material" on Land. In agriculture, it is measured by the surface area it covers and its depth.
  • The characteristics of Soil change in respect of external forces (such as weather conditions) across the time. How long it would last depends on its vitability.

Note: https://www.quora.com/profile/Ruel-Lino-Cruz

Lähetetty 11. kesäkuuta 2022 09:13 käyttäjältä lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 kommenttia | Jätä kommentti

15. tammikuuta 2022

5 more Plants Observations (as at 1 January 2022, since August 2020)

  1. Mexican pentunia or Mexican ruellia [Ruellia simplex] < Ruellias [Ruellias < Ruellieae < Acanthoideae < Acanthaceae] < Mints, Plantains, Olives, and Allies [Lamiales] Lamiids < Asterids < Eudicots] < Dicots [Magnoliopsida] < Flowering Plants [Angiospermae] < Vascular Plants [Tracheophyta] < Plants [Plantae]

  2. Brazilian Bachelor’s Button [Centratherum punctatum] < Centratherum [Centratherum < Lychnophorinae < Vernonieae] < Chicories, Dandelions, and Allies [Cichorioideae]
  3. Bidens alba ssp. radiata < Romerillo [Bidens alba < Bidens pilosa var. radiata] < Black-jack [Bidens pilosa] < Bur Marigolds [Bidens] < Coreopsis and Allies [Coreosideae < Heliantheae < Helianthodae < Asteroideae (菊亞科)]
  4. Tridax Daisy [Tridax procumbens] < Tridax [Tridax < Millerieae] < Sunflowers and Allies [Heliantheae < Helianthodae < Asteroideae (菊亞科)]

    < Sunflowers, Daisies, Asters [Asteraceae] < Asters, Bellflowers, Fanflowers and Allies [Asterales < Asterids < Eudicots] < Dicots [Magnoliopsida] < Flowering Plants [Angiospermae] < Vascular Plants [Tracheophyta] < Plants [Plantae]

  5. Japanese maple [Acer palmatum] < Maples [Maples < Acer < Sapindaceae] < Soapberry [Sapindaceae < Sapindales] < Soapberries, Cashews, Mahoganies, and Allies [Sapindales < Malvids < Rosids < Eudicots] < Dicots [Magnoliopsida] < Flowering Plants [Angiospermae] < Vascular Plants [Tracheophyta] < Plants [Plantae]
Lähetetty 15. tammikuuta 2022 11:34 käyttäjältä lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 kommenttia | Jätä kommentti

14. lokakuuta 2021

Esterification - Formation of aroma/ester

Esterification - Formation of aroma/ester

An ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH hydroxyl group is replaced by an –O– alkyl (alkoxy) group, as in the substitution reaction of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol.

RCO2H + R′OH ⇌ RCO2R′ + H2O

Types of esters

There are two groups of esters, aliphatic and phenolic. Aliphatic esters are those formed with straight chain/non-cyclic molecules (such as alcohols and fatty acids). Phenolic esters are formed from phenolic compounds, which are cyclic in nature.

Ethanoic acid (Common Name: Acetic acid) CH3COOH
Ethanol C2 H5OH


In the presence of a dehydrating agent, e.g. H2SO4, the reaction goes to the right-hand side of the equation:

CH3COOH + C2 H5OH ---> CH3COOC2 H5 + H2O

It is said that aliphatic monocarboxylic esters are the most significant esters for white wines. The second group are those formed from acetic acid and higher alcohols.

Example: Grape phenolic compounds

Further reading:

1. Blogs wirtten by some wine advocate(s): https://enoviti-hanumangirl.blogspot.com/2013_02_01_archive.html

Lähetetty 14. lokakuuta 2021 07:12 käyttäjältä lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 kommenttia | Jätä kommentti

10. lokakuuta 2021

Observations/Identifications of Chamomiles

1. German chamomile or Matricaria chamomilla
Matricaria recutita
> [Matricariinae > Matricaria] > [Matricaria chamomilla]

June 13, 2020 in Netherlands

2. Rayless chamomile
Matricaria discoidea
> [Matricariinae > Matricaria] > [Matricaria discoidea]

July 1, 2020 in Russia

3. Roman chamomile
Chamaemelum nobile
> [Anthemidinae > Anthemis] > [Anthemis nobilis]

June 28, 2019 in United Kingdom

4. Dusky Dog-fennel
Chamaemelum fuscatum
> [Anthemidinae > Anthemis] > [Anthemis fuscatum]

April 11, 2019 in Portugal

5. Stinking Chamomile
Anthemis cotula
> [Anthemidinae > Anthemis] > [Anthemis cotula]

June 22, 2019 in United States

6. Corn Chamomile
Anthemis arvensis
> [Anthemidinae > Anthemis] > [Anthemis arvensis]

August 9, 2020 in Poland

7. Yellow chamomile (Golden Marguerite)
Cota tinctoria
> [Cota] > [Cota tinctoria]

June 19, 2020 in Germany

Diploid or Tetraploid ( 2n = 18, 36)
7. Corn Scentless-chamomile
Tripleurospermum inodorum
> [Tripleurospermum] > [Tripleurospermum inodorum]

September 11, 2019 in Russia

July 11, 2015 in somewhere near Russia

8. Sea Mayweed
Tripleurospermum maritimum
> [Tripleurospermum] > [Tripleurospermum maritimum]

April 26, 2020 in New Zealand

2n = 18, 54
Genus [Tanacetum]
Go to Appendix IIA

Reference : Flora of North America@efloras.org

  1. www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 > Volume 19
  2. www.efloras.org > Floras of North America >
Lähetetty 10. lokakuuta 2021 10:31 käyttäjältä lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 kommenttia | Jätä kommentti

1. lokakuuta 2021

More about Photosynthesis: Difference Between Chlorophyll A and B

Category: Cell Biology
From: https://pediaa.com/difference-between-chlorophyll-a-and-b/#ab

Author: Lakna - a graduate in Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, is a Molecular Biologist and has a broad and keen interest in the discovery of nature related things.

Chlorophyll A (Chemical formula: C55H72MgN4O5) Chlorophyll B (Chemical formula: C55H70MgN4 O6)
------------------------------------ ------------------------------------
Chlorophyll A is the principal pigment involved in the photosynthesis. Chlorophyll B is the accessory pigment, collecting the energy in order to pass into chlorophyll A
------------------------------------ ------------------------------------
Three-fourths (¾) of total chlorophyll in plants are Chlorophyll A. One-fourth (¼) of total chlorophyll in plants are Chlorophyll B.
Chlorophyll A absorbs the light in the range of 430 nm to 660 nm (violet-blue and orange-red light from the spectrum). The wavelengths which are effectively absorbed by chlorophyll A are 430 nm and 662 nm. Chlorophyll A reflects blue-green in color. Chlorophyll B absorbs the light in the range of 450 nm to 650 nm (orange-red light from the spectrum). The wavelength which is effectively absorbed by chlorophyll B is 470 nm. Chlorophyll B reflects yellow-green in color.
------------------------------------ ------------------------------------
The solubility of chlorophyll A is low in polar solvents. Chlorophyll A is soluble in petroleum ether. The solubility of chlorophyll B is high in polar solvents like ethanol and methanol compared to chlorophyll A.
------------------------------------ ------------------------------------
Chlorophyll A is present in all the photosynthetic organisms on earth, giving a bluish green color to those organisms. Chlorophyll B gives a yellowish green color to organisms.

Supplementary information:
Visible Color Spectrum Wheel (https://sciencestruck.com/visible-color-spectrum-wheel)

The visible color spectrum wheel is an arrangement of colors in a wheel or circle to show how one color relates to the other.
...... (omitted)

Here is a color wheel from Wikimedia Commons:
Color wheel wavelengths

UV 270nm to 280nm
Violet 400nm
Blue 475nm
Green 510nm
Yellow 570nm
Orange 590nm
Red 650nm

Arrangement of Colors
The wavelength of visible light is between 390 to 750 nm, which is visible to the naked eye in the form of light. In a standard color wheel, all the visible colors are painted on a circle. The three primaries (red, yellow, and blue) are placed around the three points of an equilateral triangle; they are also known as pure colors, as they cannot be made by mixing any other colors.

The secondaries (green, orange, and violet) are then placed in between the primaries at equal distances. They are made by mixing two primary colors in equal proportions. Orange is made by mixing red with yellow; violet is made by mixing red with blue; and green is made by mixing blue with yellow. The six tertiary colors, which are red-orange, red-violet, yellow-green, yellow-orange, blue-green, and blue-violet, are made by mixing each primary color with the adjacent secondary one.

For example, red-orange is made by mixing red (primary) with orange (secondary). Red orange is then placed in between red and orange in the wheel. All the other five tertiary types are placed in it in the same way, i.e., in between the primaries and the secondaries from which they are made.

These 12 colors form the basis of this wheel. However, in reality, there are many more varieties, shades, and hues. Many such wheels show more gradation of colors and have 24 colors on them. In theory, all of them can be made by mixing the primary, with the secondary and tertiary ones; and the total number will be infinite. But in reality, it is very difficult for paint companies to come up with so many variations.

One of the most interesting facts about this wheel is that if it is spinning rapidly, our eyes can see the color white, which is not even there in it. When it spins rapidly, the colors merge into each other very fast, and our mind is not able to distinguish between them. So, their reflection is blended, and we see white light. When all the light of the visible spectrum is absorbed, we see the color black. The color wheel is thus, invaluable for artists as well as physicists, who study the interaction of colors.

Lähetetty 1. lokakuuta 2021 12:13 käyttäjältä lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 kommenttia | Jätä kommentti

28. syyskuuta 2021

A Brief on Chamomile - Appendix IIA

One of the Keys to Identify the Plants of Tanacetum
Tanacetum species can be classified according to their leaves:

  • balsamic (T. balsamita),
  • mattram (T. parthenium),
  • common tansy (T. corymbosum) and
  • coarsely bipinnate (T. macrophyllum).

Tanacetum balsamita (艾菊) 2n = 18, 54
Common name: Costmary

Perennials, 30–80(–120) cm. Stems 1, erect, simple or branched (strigose, glabrate). Leaves basal and cauline; petiolate (proximal) or sessile (distal); blades (basal and proximal cauline) mostly elliptic to oblong, 10–20 × 2–8 cm, usually not pinnately lobed (sometimes with 1–4+ lateral lobes near bases), margins ± crenate, faces usually silvery strigose or sericeous (at least when young), glabrescent, ± gland-dotted. Heads (3–)10–60+ in corymbiform arrays. Involucres (3–)5–8(–10) mm diam. (phyllaries 40–60+ in 3–4+ series, tips usually ± dilated). Receptacles flat to convex. Ray florets usually 0 [sometimes 12–15, pistillate, fertile; corollas white, laminae 4–6+ mm]. Disc corollas ca. 2 mm. Cypselae ± columnar, 1.5–2 mm, 5–8-ribbed (with non-mucilaginous glands); pappi coroniform, 0.1–0.4 mm (entire or ± toothed). 2n = 18, 54.

Tanacetum parthenium (短舌匹菊) 2n = 18
Common name: Feverfew (Swedish: Mattram)

Pyrethrum parthenium

Tanacetum parthenium

Tanacetum corymbosum(also 艾菊?)
Geographic distribution: Africa, Europe
(Pls refer to: http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:252281-1)

Common name: Scentless feverfew


Lähetetty 28. syyskuuta 2021 08:17 käyttäjältä lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 kommenttia | Jätä kommentti

8. toukokuuta 2021

Notes on Medicinal Plants

In an interesting academic research (paper) on medicinal plants in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) [Note 1], there nearly 40% of the medicinal plant species were from families of:-

  • Asteraceae (9)
  • Fabaceae (9)
  • Poaceae (7) [grasses]
  • Solanaceae (6) [nightshades]
  • Capparaceae (6) [rosids > eurosids > malvids]
  • Euphorbiaceae (6) [rosids > eurosids > fabids]
  • Asclepiadaceae (5) and Brassicaceae (5) [cabbage]

“Maximum number of medicinal plant species were recorded from mountains and wadi habitat (44.7%) followed by alluvial and interdunal plain (29.5%), oases, farmlands and plantations (19.7%), inland sand sheets, dunes and mega dunes (18%) coastal and saline habitat (9.8%), urban habitat (8.3%), inland water habitat (3%). Species possessing medicinal properties were not recorded from sabkha and off shore islands.”

“The medicinal plants were categorized into various life forms [Note 2] such as chamaephyte (41%), therophyte (36%), phanerophyte (11%), hemicryptophytes (4%), geophytes (4%) and lianas (4%).”

Note 1: Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6(7), pp. 1304-1322, 23 February, 2012 -- Medicinal plants diversity and their conservation status in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Note 2: Illustration of plant life form:

Therophytes are annual plants that survive harsh condition, and complete their life cycle in one or less than a year when conditions are favourable.

Lähetetty 8. toukokuuta 2021 06:05 käyttäjältä lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 kommenttia | Jätä kommentti